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Brand Names: Clomid, Serophene, Milophene, Duinum, Ovamit
Generic Name: Clomiphene Citrate
While it has been claimed that Clomid "stimulates" production of LH and therefore of testosterone, in fact Clomid's activity is achieved not by stimulation of the hypothalamus and pituitary, but by blocking their inhibition by estrogen.
Clomid is a mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist (activator/blocker) which, when bound to the estrogen receptor, puts it in a somewhat different conformation (shape) than does estradiol. The estrogen receptor requires binding of an estrogen or drug at its binding site and also the binding of any of several cofactors at different sites. Without the binding of the cofactor, the estrogen receptor is inactive. Different tissues use different cofactors. Some of these cofactors are able to bind to the estrogen receptor/Clomid complex, but others are blocked due to the change in shape. The result is that in some tissues Clomid acts as an antagonist - the cofactor used in that tissue cannot bind and so the receptor remains inactive - and in others Clomid acts as an agonist (activator), because the cofactors used in that tissue are able to bind.
Clomid is an effective antagonist in the hypothalamus and in breast tissue. It is an effective agonist in bone tissue, and for improving blood cholesterol.
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